30 Bananas a Day!



its all about cobalt - cobalts a metal

we need it but cant eat it cause is inorganic

so we need a bacteria called cobalamin  to eat it for us to convert the non-organic cobalt into orbanic cobalt via their organic cobalt rich stools.

you cant inject cobalt, you cant eat cobalt - we need the metal eating backteria cobalmin to do it for us.

so we have a symbotic relationship with cobalamin bacteria


B12 is digestible cobalt by digesting the stools of the cobalamin bacteria.

if you like - read on for more exciting but deeper stuff .....



Cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal with a specific gravity of 8.9. Pure cobalt is not found in nature, but compounds of cobalt are common. Small amounts of it are found in most rocks, soil, plants and animals.


Cobalt is water soluable & is a weakly reducing metal that is protected from oxidation by a passivating oxide film. It is attacked by halogens and sulfur (acid ph).


this is why the B12 absorbion process starts in the stomach where the PH is acid.




A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared to ground plants.


Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes (cofactor) called cobalamins, the most common example of which is vitamin B12. As such it is an essential trace dietary mineral for all animals. Cobalt in inorganic form is also an active nutrient for bacteria, algae and fungi - this is why we need the combalamin bacteria to eat the cobalt and convert it to a organic sources being the cobalamin bacterias stools which have organic cobalt in them (b12).


A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is bound to a protein and is required for the protein's biological activity. These proteins are commonly enzymes, and cofactors can be considered "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical transformations.


B12 It is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin and can be produced industrially only through bacterial fermentation-synthesis.


B12 cotains the biochemically rare element cobalt.


The vitamin B12 is only accomplished by bacteria, but conversion between different forms of the vitamin can be accomplished in the human body.



above shows a cobalt rich piece of dolomite crystals - dolomite is naturally clear.


above is a chunk of cobalt rich calcite crystals - calcite crystals are norally clear.



if the soil is not contaminated by pesticides, herbicides and artifical fertiliers then the soils in the above countries which have significant cobalt soil reserves should have cobalamin rich bacteria.


Besides B12 - what is cobalt used for ?

  • magnets
  • ceramics & special glasses
  • tools 7 key alloying element in steels with chromium, aluminum, yttrium.





all man made B12 is synthetic


A common synthetic form of the vitamin, cyanocobalamin, does not occur in nature, but is used in many pharmaceuticals and supplements, and as a food additive, because of its stability and lower cost.

In the body cyanocobalamin it is converted to the physiological forms, methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, leaving behind the cyanide, albeit in minimal concentration.

More recently, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and adenosylcobalamin can also be found in more expensive pharmacological products and food supplements. The extra utility of these is currently debated.



above is pure cobalt - pure cobalt is un-nautral and has to be man extracted - cobalt in its natural form is only ever found  in chemically combined form.



vitamin B12 are the excretions of the cobalamin bacteria (pictured above) which naturally live in your colon and also found in the the earths fertile soils.


B12 must combine with a protein called R-Binder in the stomach where the PH is acid -  once it is hooked up with R-Binder, B12 goes into the duodenum (small intestines) where the R-Binder is exchanged for a chemical called intrinsic factor made by the wall of the the stomach - intrinsic factor protects & guides the B12 into the blood stream through the gut wall in the last 8 feet of the small intestines - in the blood it rides around on a protein & other tissue which stores for latter use.


this vitamin runs very imporant cycles, we need  to eat 9 essential amino acids in our diet - vit B12, folic acid & vit B6 are needed to run a chemical cycle that generates an additional 12 amino acid s that the body needs for the amino acid called methionine - without adequate amounts of these three vitamins, homocysteine builds up in teh body and that chemical is one more factor that causes the arteries to plug up.

we need 2 to 3 micrograms of B12 per day. 


for b12 to be absorbed it needs to be in the mouth for a while because it needs to be mixed with saliva.


B12 info - R-Binder are a group of carrier proteins which bind with vitamin B12 in the blood and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.

Alpha-Globulins - Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.

Beta-Globulin - Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.

Electrophoresis - An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.

Intrinsic Factor - A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the gastric glands that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12. Deficiency of intrinsic factor results in ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.


Methionine - A sulfur containing essential amino acid that is important in many body functions. It is a chelating agent for heavy metals.


Homocysteine - A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.








Process for production of HYDROXOcobalamin
United States Patent 5338418

If its been patent then its not natural because you can't patent natural things only artificual things.

A process for the production of hydroxocobalamin that eliminates cyanocobalamin as an intermediate. Co-enzyme-type vitamin B12 is first absorbed to a divinylbenzene/styrene resin which is washed with warm water and then eluted with a solution containing at least 25% of a lower alcohol. The eluate is then irradiated with a light that causes the conversion of coenzyme-type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin. Finally, the solution of hydroxocobalamin is treated with alumina or silica which binds the impurities leaving behind the highly purified hydroxocobalamin in the flow-through.


1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a novel process for production of hydroxocobalamin.

2. Related Art

Various cobalamin--series compounds including hydroxocobalamin are mainly derived from Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 produced by fermentation. It is known in the art that the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is optically converted to hydroxocobalamin (see, vitamin Science (II) Water Soluble Vitamin, P 493, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin).

It has been believed, however, that direct isolation and purification of hydroxocobalamin from Co-enzyme type vitamin B12, which is present in a very low concentration among various impurities is very difficult, because hydroxocobalamin is highly reactive and unstable. For example, Japanese Examined Patent Publication (Kokoku) No. 39-18148 (GB 1012360) describes "the case wherein hydroxocobalamin is directly produced from a fermentation broth is very difficult because hydroxocobalamin is highly reactive and hydroxocobalamin easily binds to other ions present in a solution . . . ", and this is generally recognized in the art.

Therefore, hydroxocobalamin is obtained from Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 produced by fermentation by a process comprising the steps of conversion of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 to stable cyanocobalamin, purification of the cyanocobalamin, and conversion of the purified cyanocobalamin to hydroxocobalamin (see, Japanese Examined Patent Publication No. 39-18148, and Japanese Examined Patent Publication No. 46-14664 (U.S. Pat. No. 3448099)).

However, the process wherein hydroxocobalamin is obtained from coenzyme-type vitamin B12 going through cyanocobalamin as an intermediate is not advantageous with respect to yield, production costs, and the like. Such a process requires numerous, complex steps. In particular, coenzyme-type vitamin B12 is first converted to cyanocobalamin; the cyanocobalamin is isolated and purified in a sub-process requiring several steps; the purified cyanocobalamin is converted to hydroxocobalamin; and, finally, the hydroxocobalamin is isolated and purified.


The present invention provides a very simple process comprising a small number of steps for isolating and purifying hydroxocobalamin from coenzyme-type vitamin B12 produced by fermentation. The inventive process comprises a particular combination of a few steps, including an optical conversion step of coenzyme-type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin. Such a process has been believed to be impossible in the art.

Thus, the present invention relates to a process for the production of hydroxocobalamin comprising the steps of:

(1) putting a solution containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 into contact with a divinylbenzene/styrene copolymer resin so that the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is adsorbed in the resin;

(2) washing the resin with purified water or aqueous washing solution at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C. so as to remove impurities;

(3) extracting the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 adsorbed on the resin with an aqueous solution containing at least 25% by of a lower alcohol, to obtain an eluate containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 ;

(4) irradiating the eluate with light to convert Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin; and

(5) treating the hydroxocobalamin-containing solution from step (4) with an inorganic adsorbent and recovering hydroxocobalamin.


A solution containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 used as a starting material of the present process is obtained by fermentation using a vitamin B12-producing microorganism. The vitamin B12 -producing microorganisms include, but are not limited to, those belonging to the genus Propionibacterium, Streptomyces, Arthrobecter, Corinebacterium, Rhodopseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, or the like.

A solution containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is, for example, a culture supernatant or filtrate obtained by eliminating microbial cells from a fermentation broth obtained by aerobically or unaerobically culturing said producer microorganism; an extract obtained by extracting microbial cells of the producer microorganism with an extracting agent such as water or an aqueous extracting agent; a solution obtained by disrupting microbial cells of the producer microorganism with a conventional means such as a mechanical means or ultrasonication, or the like. According to the present invention, it is preferable that an extract be obtained by culturing a vitamin B12 -producing microorganism, separating the cultured cells in a conventional means, and optionally washing the cells with purified water such as water purified with an ion exchanger, and extracting the cells with purified water such as water purified with an ion exchanger at an elevated temperature, preferably at 60° C. to 95° C. for example, 80° C.

Next, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution thus obtained is contacted with a divinylbenzene/styrene type copolymer resin so that the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is adsorbed on the resin.

The divinylbenzene/styrene type copolymer resin is a copolymer resin obtained from divinylbenzene, styrene or functional derivative thereof as main monomer components, or a copolymer resin derived from divinylbenzene, styrene or functional derivative thereof as main components, and incorporating an aromatic polycarboxylate unsaturated alkyl ester represented by the formula: ##STR1## wherein R is an unsaturated C8 -C10 alkyl having a carbon-carbon double band, and n being 2 or 3. This resin is sometimes abbreviated as a DST resin.

These resins are generally obtained by copolymerizing the above-mentioned monomers with a known radical initiator. Preferably, styrene or a functional derivative thereof comprises 30 to 80%, preferably 45 to 70% by weight of the resin and the aromatic polycarboxylate/unsaturated alkyl ester comprises, if any, 0.1 to 30% by weight preferably 1 to 10% by weight of the resin.

Particular DST resins include, for example, AMBERLITE XAD-2®, XAD-4® and 2000®, DIAION HP20®, SEPABEADS SP207® and SP825®.

According to the present process, contacting the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 with the resin adsorbent can be carried out using any means that ensures sufficient contact thereof.

For example, a batch system wherein the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution is mixed with the resin adsorbent and optionally the mixture is agitated to ensure sufficient contact, or a column chromatography system wherein an appropriate column is filled with the resin adsorbent and the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution is passed through the column.

In the case of the batch system, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution is adjusted to a suitable pH value, for example a pH value of about 5 to 8, preferably a pH value of about 7, and to the solution is added a suitable amount of the resin adsorbent, for example about 1 to 50% by volume of the resin adsorbent, and the mixture is gently agitated for about 10 minutes to 2 hours, usually about 20 minutes to an hour.

The temperature during the adsorption is preferably lower than room temperature although room temperature may be used. For example, the temperature during adsorption may be between about 10° C. and 30° C.

The column chromatography system for the adsorption can be carried out by passing the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution through a column filled with a resin adsorbent under the same pH and temperature conditions as for the batch system described above.

According to the present invention, the resin on which Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 has been adsorbed is washed with a washing agent to remove impurities and maintain the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 adsorbed on the resin. The impurities to be removed include those derived from the culture broth, for example, salts of aliphatic carboxylic acids such as sodium propionate, sodium burylate and sodium pentanoate, amino acids such as glutamic acid, aspartic acids, proline, leucine, alanine, sugars such as glucose, fructose, ribose and galactose, as well as bases comprising nucleic acids, such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymidine and uracil, and the like. The washing increases the purity of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12eluted from the resin adsorbent in a subsequent elution step.

The washing agent is preferably purified water. The purified water is, for example, water purified by an ion exchanger and having a specific resistance of 100×104 ohm.cm, prepared by passing water through a column filled with an ion exchange resin, such as Amberlite IR-120B and Amberlite IRA-410. The purified water is used to wash the resin absorbent at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C., preferably between about 45° C. and 55° C. Alternatively, the washing agent may be an aqueous solution of an acid such as acetic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, boric acid, hydrochloric acid or the like, having a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0% by weight, at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C., preferably between about 45° C. and 55° C. Moreover, an aqueous solution of a lower alcohol having a low concentration, for example a methanol, ethanol or isopropanol aqueous solution having a concentration of 5 to 20%, such an 20% aqueous methanol, 10% aqueous ethanol, 5% aqueous isopropanol or the like, may be used for the washing. The washing agent may be selected depending on the nature and amount of the impurities, the kind of the resin adsorbent, and the like.

According to the present invention, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 adsorbed on the washed resin was eluted with an eluting agent so as to obtain an active fraction containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 but not containing impurities.

As the eluting agent, any agent that desorbs and elutes the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 from the resin adsorbent, and does not interfere with irradiation with light in a subsequent conversion step. The eluting agent may be an aqueous solution of a lower alcohol such as methanol, ethanol or isopropanol, or a mixture thereof, having a concentration of at least 25%. Preferably, the eluting agent is an aqueous solution of methanol having a concentration of 25 to 90%, most preferably 50%. The elution can be carried out at room temperature although an elevated or lowered temperature may be used if desired. For example, an elution temperature is between about 20° C. and 60° C.

Since the eluate thus obtained contains Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 in a substantially purified form, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 can be converted to hydroxocobalamin by irradiation of light. The light for irradiation is ultraviolet or visible light, for example, having a wave length of 300 to 800 nm. As a source of the light having such a wave length, a high pressure mercury arc lamp, a fluorescent lamp or the like can be used. The irradiation is continued until the disappearance of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is confirmed by spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography or the like. For example, the irradiation is carried out with a 400 W high pressure mercury arc lamp for 20 to 40 minutes. Other conditions for the irradiation, such as the concentration of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 in a reaction medium, the kind of medium, temperature, etc. are not critical. The concentration of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 in a medium to be irradiated is preferably up to 50 mM, more preferably 0.1 to 10 mM. The kind of medium is conveniently the same as that used in the preceding step. The temperature is preferably 5° C. to 30° C.

Since hydroxocobalamin in a solution thus obtained is highly reactive and unstable, it cannot be subjected to a lot of purification steps. Therefore, according to the present invention, immediately after the irradiation, the irradiated hydroxocobalamin solution is put into contact with an inorganic adsorbent to remove impurities such as those present prior to the irradiation and those generated by the irradiation such as adenosine-5'-aldehyde.

As the inorganic adsorbent, silica gel, alumina or the like may be used, with alumina being preferable. The adsorption is preferably carried out by passing an irradiated solution through a column filled with the inorganic adsorbent and recovering a flow-through fraction. Alternatively, in a batch process, an irradiated solution may be added to the inorganic adsorbent, and after mixing the mixture the adsorbent is removed by a conventional procedure such as filtration, centrifugation or the like so as to recover a purified hydroxocobalamin solution.

The treated solution is concentrated for hydroxocobalamin according to a conventional procedure such as evaporation under reduced pressure, membrane separation or the like, and hydroxocobalamin crystallized so as to recover hydroxocobalamin. For example, the concentrated solution of hydroxocobalamin is adjusted to a pH value of about 4.0, and acetone is added to the pH adjusted solution so as to crystallize hydroxocobalamin, which is then recovered at a purity of at least 95%.


Next, the present invention is further explained by Example, but is not limited to the said Example.

480 liters of a culture broth containing 25 mg/l of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12, obtained by fermentation using a Co-enzyme type vitamin B12producing microorganism, Propionibacteriom Shermanii IF012391, was centrifuged to recover the cells. The cells were thoroughly washed with purified water and extracted with 400 liters of water at 80° C. to obtain 400 liters of an extract containing crude Co-enzyme type vitamin B12. The extract was passed through a column filled with 6 liters of a divinylbenzene/styrene type copolymer resin, AMBERLITE XAD2000®, so that Co-enzymetype vitamin B12 is adsorbed on the resin. 250 liters of water purified by ion exchanger were continuously passed through the column at a temperature of 60° C. so as to wash out the impurities. Next, Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 was eluted with 28 liters of a 50% aqueous methanol.

The eluate was irradiated with a 400 W high pressure mercury arc lamp for 20 minutes to convert Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin. The irradiated eluate was passed through a column filled with 750 ml of alumina, to recover a flow-through fraction, which was then concentrated to 750 ml under reduced pressure.

The concentrate was adjusted to a pH value of 4.0 with acetic acid, and 3.9 liters of acetone were added to the pH-adjusted concentrate, which was then allowed to stand at 5° C. for 24 hours so as to crystallize the hydroxocobalamin. 3.7 g of hydroxocobalamin were obtained at a purity of at least 95%.

According to the present invention, high purity hydroxocobalamin can be obtained by a small number of steps from a culture broth containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 without going through cyanocobalamin as an intermediate.

Tetsuo Toraya, "Vitamin B12 and Related Compounds",

Vitamin Science II:493-494, 1980 (partial translation enclosed).
Primary Examiner: Brown, Johnnie R.
Assistant Examiner: Kunz, Gary L.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Seed, And Berry
Claims: We claim:

1. A process for the production of hydroxocobalamin comprising:
(1) contacting a solution containing coenzyme-type vitamin B12 with a divinylbenzene/styrene copolymer resin so that the coenzyme-type vitamin B is absorbed onto the resin;

(2) washing the resin with purified water or aqueous washing solution at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C. so as to remove the impurities;

(3) eluting the coenzyme-type vitamin B12 absorbed on the resin with an aqueous solution containing at least 25% by volume of a lower alcohol;

(4) irradiating the eluate with light so as to convert coenzyme-type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin;

(5) contacting the hydroxocobalamin-containing solution from step (4) with silica or alumina; and

(6) recovering the unbound, purified hydroxocobalamin.





Manufacture: the chemical synthesis of vitamin B12 is extremely difficult and labour-intensive. For this reason, bio-technical processes are largely dominant in its production. It may be assumed in the meanwhile that vitamin B12 is manufactured as a rule with the aid of genetically modified microorganisms.


Approval: ingredients or additives that are produced with the aid of GM microorganisms are assumed not to be addressed by the EU decree 1829/2003 (GM food and feed). Hence, special approval does not exist for vitamin B12 that is produced in this manner.


Labelling: additives produced in closed systems with the aid of GM micro-organisms are not subject to a labelling requirement, provided that the additive in question has been purified and does not contain microorganisms.

The additive in question remains exempt from labelling even in the case that the microorganisms used in its production have obtained nutrients derived from GM plants.




Vitamin B12 was discovered from its relationship to the disease pernicious anemia, which is an autoimmune disease in which parietal cells of the stomach responsible for secreting intrinsic factor are destroyed. Intrinsic factor is crucial for the normal absorption of B12, so a lack of intrinsic factor, causes a vitamin B12 deficiency.


The term B12 may be properly used to refer to cyanocobalamin, the principal B12 form used for foods and in nutritional supplements. This ordinarily creates no problem, except perhaps in rare cases of eye nerve damage.









also to add - BOTTLE VITAMINS

vitamin C made from GM corn

vitamin E made from GM soy

vitamins A, B2, B6, and B12 derived from GMOs as well.

Vitamin D and K have carriers derived from GM corn sources.


Gene technology

There are various methods for production of vitamins: chemical synthesis, biotechnological methods with the help of microorganisms, extraction from plants or herbal material.

  • For some vitamins production methods have now been developed that use genetically modified microorganism
    vitamin B12vitamin B2vitamin Cbeta-carotene as vitamin A precursor, biotin.
    These methods are used commercially to produce vitamins C, B2, B12 and biotin.
  • Vitamin E can be produced both biotechnically or from soya beans. For extractions from soya beans, it is probable that a certain percentage derives from genetically modified plants.
  • Many vitamins, especially the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, are attached to carrier molecules for better handling. Gene technological methods can be utilised for producing some of these carriers, e.g. starchglucosemaltodextrin.
    Carriers are not legally considered to be foodstuffs and do not therefore have to be declared.

Labelling: Additives that are produced in a closed system with the help of genetically modified microorganisms do not have to be declared, providing that the specific additive has been purified and contains no microorganisms.

Vitamins, such as vitamin E, that are prepared directly from GM-plants have to be labelled as such. Whether this is still required when the product has been subjected to several processing steps has not been definitely clarified.


Genetically Modified foods (GMO) were first releasted to the market in 1996 - are we that confident they are harmless ?



 made in china $2800 USD per Kg

check out this page - a wholesale list of synthetic b12 for you to choose from .



why does meat have B12 these days because the livestock gets injected with synthetic feedstock grade cyancobalamin prior to slaughter.

therefore everyone consuming those animals are consuming synthetic B12


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All of us on this forum have eaten GMO food at some point of our lives. Doesnt mean its good but its definitely not a major factor in immediate health decline. Feed me GMO food and I wont notice at all yet I can be put in hospital from renal failure after just one day of dehydration literally.

True, but it is definitely bad in the long run.  I wouldn't consistently eat gmos over an extended period of time if you have access to organic, non-gmo.  

Short term though?  No problem.  

Interesting thank you.

yeah pj - ive never seen the combalamin b12 bacteria before - apparently we have 200  billion bacteria inside us accounting for approx 10% of our entire body mass.

A very interesting topic Vegan Witch.  Frankly, it's disturbing to see exactly how much is GM and how far people are willing to go for profit.

It should be noted here, as noted previously, that the cobalamin b12 bacteria "product" was at one time in plant foods.  Of course, in the advent of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, humanity has eradicated many beneficial micro-organisms.  It's ironic that now the spin is you need animal products for b12.  Perhaps the corporate/military elite are trying to sell the very air and dirt they polluted back to us?

Yet another reason to turn the compost bin.

hey PJ - b12 the vitamin is the fecal #2s that the combalamin bacteria passes - so when the combalamin bacteria go to the toilet they pass their stools which are a vitamin for us called b12

GMO's are ofcourse bogus for a great meny reasons.

however first we must get what we need to live, to thrive, (energy, nutrients, etc..) then work on improving the quality of these sources. no?

...that being said, id be staying away from gmo's as much as i possible could! ...however due to medial history, (septicemia and seamingly every complication after the fact!) b12 absorption is an issue for me. as such that issue must be delt with.

Hmm I wonder when they are going to come out with some GM fruit or veggie that produces its own b12 giving no need to supplement. I wish I could say "that would be cool" but my ethics prevent me from such thoughts. I think all this mixing of plant an animal genes will someday make some of us grow branches out our butts and leaves on our skin! Yuk!

Here is an idea to all you aspiring GM scientists: GM humans with chlorophyll in their skin and all the genes to make every nutrient they need from CO2, sunlight, and trace minerals! Could even make some gene therapy drug to give this to normal humans! This way we really could be breatharians! Well we would still need to drink mineral water and lay out in the sun all day.. And we would be green!

No on second thought.. Scratch that idea.. It sounds bad...

by the look of cobalt reserves around the world which are required food for the cobalamin bacteria - the USA is low at 1%  (primarily in calfornia).

That was a great post to read! Interestingly enough, some scientists uphold evolution to be carried initially through symbiosis.. when all life shared a common prokaryotic ancestor.



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