30 Bananas a Day!

why does our species need B12 - well i reckon it has something to do with the fact we dont eat our bacteria rich feces like our other primates do.

 

B12 SIMPLE VERSION

its all about cobalt - cobalts a naturally occurring metal

we need it in our bodies but we cant eat it cause is inorganic

 

so we need a bacteria called cobalamin  to eat it for us to convert the non-organic cobalt into orbanic cobalt via their organic cobalt rich stools.

 

you cant inject cobalt, you cant eat cobalt - so we need the metal eating bacteria called cobalmin to do it for us.

  

B12 is digestible cobalt by digesting the stools of the cobalamin bacteria.


if you like - read on for more exciting but deeper stuff .....


Neither fungi, plants or animals are capable of producing vitamin B12. Only bacteria and archaea have the enzymes required for its synthesis, and they therefore form its only sources in nature.

 

Archaea exist in a broad range of habitats, and as a major part of global ecosystems, may contribute up to 20% of earth's biomass. The first-discovered archaeans were extremophiles.[88] Indeed, some archaea survive high temperatures, often above 100 °C (212 °F), as found in geysers, black smokers, and oil wells. Other common habitats include very cold habitats and highly saline, acidic, oralkaline water. However, archaea include mesophiles that grow in mild conditions, in marshland, sewage, the oceans, and soils.

 

The vitamin is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin and can be produced industrially only through bacterial fermentation-synthesis.

 

Vitamin B12 consists of a class of chemically related compounds (vitamers), all of which have vitamin activity. It contains the biochemically rare elementcobalt. Biosynthesis of the basic structure of the vitamin is accomplished only by bacteria (which usually produce hydroxocobalamin), but conversion between different forms of the vitamin can be accomplished in the human body.

 

More recently, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and adenosylcobalamin can be found in more expensive pharmacological products and food supplements. The extra use of these is currently debated.


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COBALT

Cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal with a specific gravity of 8.9. Pure cobalt is not found in nature, but compounds of cobalt are common. Small amounts of it are found in most rocks, soil, plants and animals.

 

Cobalt is water soluable & is a weakly reducing metal that is protected from oxidation by a passivating oxide film. It is attacked by halogens and sulfur (acid ph).

  

this is why the B12 absorbion process starts in the stomach where the PH is acid.

 

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COBALAMIN (B12)

A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared to ground plants.

 

Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes (cofactor) called cobalamins, the most common example of which is vitamin B12. As such it is an essential trace dietary mineral for all animals. Cobalt in inorganic form is also an active nutrient for bacteria, algae and fungi - this is why we need the combalamin bacteria to eat the cobalt and convert it to a organic sources being the cobalamin bacterias stools which have organic cobalt in them (b12).

 

A cofactor is a non-protein chemical compound that is bound to a protein and is required for the protein's biological activity. These proteins are commonly enzymes, and cofactors can be considered "helper molecules" that assist in biochemical transformations.

 

B12 It is the largest and most structurally complicated vitamin and can be produced industrially only through bacterial fermentation-synthesis.

 

B12 cotains the biochemically rare element cobalt.

 

The vitamin B12 is only accomplished by bacteria, but conversion between different forms of the vitamin can be accomplished in the human body.

 

 

above shows a cobalt rich piece of dolomite crystals - dolomite is naturally clear - just like sodium, cobalt isnt found as a single element in nature - it has to bind with something to exist, such as binding with dolomite crystals in the above pic - cobalt has a distinct pink colour.

 

above is a chunk of cobalt rich calcite crystals - calcite crystals are norally clear.

 

 

if the soil is not contaminated by pesticides, herbicides and artifical fertiliers then the soils in the above countries which have significant cobalt soil reserves should have cobalamin rich bacteria.

 

Besides B12 - what is cobalt used for ?

  • magnets
  • ceramics & special glasses
  • tools 7 key alloying element in steels with chromium, aluminum, yttrium.

 

--------------------------------------------------------

 

SYNTHETIC B12 

all man made B12 is synthetic

CYANCOBALAMIN / METHYLCOBALAMIN / HYDROXOCOBALAMIN


A common synthetic form of the vitamin, cyanocobalamin, does not occur in nature, but is used in many pharmaceuticals and supplements, and as a food additive, because of its stability and lower cost.

In the body cyanocobalamin it is converted to the physiological forms, methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin, leaving behind the cyanide, albeit in minimal concentration.

More recently, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and adenosylcobalamin can also be found in more expensive pharmacological products and food supplements. The extra utility of these is currently debated.

 

 

above is pure cobalt - pure cobalt is un-nautral and has to be man extracted - cobalt in its natural form is only ever found  in chemically combined form.

 

 


 

vitamin B12 are the excretions of the cobalamin bacteria (pictured above) which naturally live in your colon and also found in the the earths fertile soils.

 

B12 must combine with a protein called R-Binder in the stomach where the PH is acid -  once it is hooked up with R-Binder, B12 goes into the duodenum (small intestines) where the R-Binder is exchanged for a chemical called intrinsic factor made by the wall of the the stomach - intrinsic factor protects & guides the B12 into the blood stream through the gut wall in the last 8 feet of the small intestines - in the blood it rides around on a protein & other tissue which stores for latter use.

 

this vitamin runs very imporant cycles, we need  to eat 9 essential amino acids in our diet - vit B12, folic acid & vit B6 are needed to run a chemical cycle that generates an additional 12 amino acid s that the body needs for the amino acid called methionine - without adequate amounts of these three vitamins, homocysteine builds up in teh body and that chemical is one more factor that causes the arteries to plug up.

we need 2 to 3 micrograms of B12 per day. 

 

for b12 to be absorbed it needs to be in the mouth for a while because it needs to be mixed with saliva.

  

B12 info - R-Binder are a group of carrier proteins which bind with vitamin B12 in the blood and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.
 

Alpha-Globulins - Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.
 

Beta-Globulin - Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
 

Electrophoresis - An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
 

Intrinsic Factor - A glycoprotein secreted by the cells of the gastric glands that is required for the absorption of VITAMIN B 12. Deficiency of intrinsic factor results in ANEMIA, PERNICIOUS.

 

Methionine - A sulfur containing essential amino acid that is important in many body functions. It is a chelating agent for heavy metals.

 

Homocysteine - A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.

 

--------------------------------------------------------

TYPES OF B12 SHOTS ARE:

HYDROXOCABAMIN

METHLCOBALAMIN

CYANCOBALAMIN


--------------------------------------------------------

Process for production of HYDROXOcobalamin
United States Patent 5338418

If its been patent then its not natural because you can't patent natural things only artificual things.

A process for the production of hydroxocobalamin that eliminates cyanocobalamin as an intermediate. Co-enzyme-type vitamin B12 is first absorbed to a divinylbenzene/styrene resin which is washed with warm water and then eluted with a solution containing at least 25% of a lower alcohol. The eluate is then irradiated with a light that causes the conversion of coenzyme-type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin. Finally, the solution of hydroxocobalamin is treated with alumina or silica which binds the impurities leaving behind the highly purified hydroxocobalamin in the flow-through.


BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a novel process for production of hydroxocobalamin.

2. Related Art

Various cobalamin--series compounds including hydroxocobalamin are mainly derived from Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 produced by fermentation. It is known in the art that the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is optically converted to hydroxocobalamin (see, vitamin Science (II) Water Soluble Vitamin, P 493, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin).

It has been believed, however, that direct isolation and purification of hydroxocobalamin from Co-enzyme type vitamin B12, which is present in a very low concentration among various impurities is very difficult, because hydroxocobalamin is highly reactive and unstable. For example, Japanese Examined Patent Publication (Kokoku) No. 39-18148 (GB 1012360) describes "the case wherein hydroxocobalamin is directly produced from a fermentation broth is very difficult because hydroxocobalamin is highly reactive and hydroxocobalamin easily binds to other ions present in a solution . . . ", and this is generally recognized in the art.

Therefore, hydroxocobalamin is obtained from Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 produced by fermentation by a process comprising the steps of conversion of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 to stable cyanocobalamin, purification of the cyanocobalamin, and conversion of the purified cyanocobalamin to hydroxocobalamin (see, Japanese Examined Patent Publication No. 39-18148, and Japanese Examined Patent Publication No. 46-14664 (U.S. Pat. No. 3448099)).

However, the process wherein hydroxocobalamin is obtained from coenzyme-type vitamin B12 going through cyanocobalamin as an intermediate is not advantageous with respect to yield, production costs, and the like. Such a process requires numerous, complex steps. In particular, coenzyme-type vitamin B12 is first converted to cyanocobalamin; the cyanocobalamin is isolated and purified in a sub-process requiring several steps; the purified cyanocobalamin is converted to hydroxocobalamin; and, finally, the hydroxocobalamin is isolated and purified.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

 

The present invention provides a very simple process comprising a small number of steps for isolating and purifying hydroxocobalamin from coenzyme-type vitamin B12 produced by fermentation. The inventive process comprises a particular combination of a few steps, including an optical conversion step of coenzyme-type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin. Such a process has been believed to be impossible in the art.

Thus, the present invention relates to a process for the production of hydroxocobalamin comprising the steps of:

(1) putting a solution containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 into contact with a divinylbenzene/styrene copolymer resin so that the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is adsorbed in the resin;

(2) washing the resin with purified water or aqueous washing solution at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C. so as to remove impurities;

(3) extracting the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 adsorbed on the resin with an aqueous solution containing at least 25% by of a lower alcohol, to obtain an eluate containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 ;

(4) irradiating the eluate with light to convert Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin; and

(5) treating the hydroxocobalamin-containing solution from step (4) with an inorganic adsorbent and recovering hydroxocobalamin.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

 

A solution containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 used as a starting material of the present process is obtained by fermentation using a vitamin B12-producing microorganism. The vitamin B12 -producing microorganisms include, but are not limited to, those belonging to the genus Propionibacterium, Streptomyces, Arthrobecter, Corinebacterium, Rhodopseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, or the like.

A solution containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is, for example, a culture supernatant or filtrate obtained by eliminating microbial cells from a fermentation broth obtained by aerobically or unaerobically culturing said producer microorganism; an extract obtained by extracting microbial cells of the producer microorganism with an extracting agent such as water or an aqueous extracting agent; a solution obtained by disrupting microbial cells of the producer microorganism with a conventional means such as a mechanical means or ultrasonication, or the like. According to the present invention, it is preferable that an extract be obtained by culturing a vitamin B12 -producing microorganism, separating the cultured cells in a conventional means, and optionally washing the cells with purified water such as water purified with an ion exchanger, and extracting the cells with purified water such as water purified with an ion exchanger at an elevated temperature, preferably at 60° C. to 95° C. for example, 80° C.

Next, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution thus obtained is contacted with a divinylbenzene/styrene type copolymer resin so that the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is adsorbed on the resin.

The divinylbenzene/styrene type copolymer resin is a copolymer resin obtained from divinylbenzene, styrene or functional derivative thereof as main monomer components, or a copolymer resin derived from divinylbenzene, styrene or functional derivative thereof as main components, and incorporating an aromatic polycarboxylate unsaturated alkyl ester represented by the formula: ##STR1## wherein R is an unsaturated C8 -C10 alkyl having a carbon-carbon double band, and n being 2 or 3. This resin is sometimes abbreviated as a DST resin.

These resins are generally obtained by copolymerizing the above-mentioned monomers with a known radical initiator. Preferably, styrene or a functional derivative thereof comprises 30 to 80%, preferably 45 to 70% by weight of the resin and the aromatic polycarboxylate/unsaturated alkyl ester comprises, if any, 0.1 to 30% by weight preferably 1 to 10% by weight of the resin.

Particular DST resins include, for example, AMBERLITE XAD-2®, XAD-4® and 2000®, DIAION HP20®, SEPABEADS SP207® and SP825®.

According to the present process, contacting the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 with the resin adsorbent can be carried out using any means that ensures sufficient contact thereof.

For example, a batch system wherein the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution is mixed with the resin adsorbent and optionally the mixture is agitated to ensure sufficient contact, or a column chromatography system wherein an appropriate column is filled with the resin adsorbent and the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution is passed through the column.

In the case of the batch system, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution is adjusted to a suitable pH value, for example a pH value of about 5 to 8, preferably a pH value of about 7, and to the solution is added a suitable amount of the resin adsorbent, for example about 1 to 50% by volume of the resin adsorbent, and the mixture is gently agitated for about 10 minutes to 2 hours, usually about 20 minutes to an hour.

The temperature during the adsorption is preferably lower than room temperature although room temperature may be used. For example, the temperature during adsorption may be between about 10° C. and 30° C.

The column chromatography system for the adsorption can be carried out by passing the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution through a column filled with a resin adsorbent under the same pH and temperature conditions as for the batch system described above.

According to the present invention, the resin on which Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 has been adsorbed is washed with a washing agent to remove impurities and maintain the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 adsorbed on the resin. The impurities to be removed include those derived from the culture broth, for example, salts of aliphatic carboxylic acids such as sodium propionate, sodium burylate and sodium pentanoate, amino acids such as glutamic acid, aspartic acids, proline, leucine, alanine, sugars such as glucose, fructose, ribose and galactose, as well as bases comprising nucleic acids, such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymidine and uracil, and the like. The washing increases the purity of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12eluted from the resin adsorbent in a subsequent elution step.

The washing agent is preferably purified water. The purified water is, for example, water purified by an ion exchanger and having a specific resistance of 100×104 ohm.cm, prepared by passing water through a column filled with an ion exchange resin, such as Amberlite IR-120B and Amberlite IRA-410. The purified water is used to wash the resin absorbent at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C., preferably between about 45° C. and 55° C. Alternatively, the washing agent may be an aqueous solution of an acid such as acetic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, boric acid, hydrochloric acid or the like, having a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0% by weight, at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C., preferably between about 45° C. and 55° C. Moreover, an aqueous solution of a lower alcohol having a low concentration, for example a methanol, ethanol or isopropanol aqueous solution having a concentration of 5 to 20%, such an 20% aqueous methanol, 10% aqueous ethanol, 5% aqueous isopropanol or the like, may be used for the washing. The washing agent may be selected depending on the nature and amount of the impurities, the kind of the resin adsorbent, and the like.

According to the present invention, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 adsorbed on the washed resin was eluted with an eluting agent so as to obtain an active fraction containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 but not containing impurities.

As the eluting agent, any agent that desorbs and elutes the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 from the resin adsorbent, and does not interfere with irradiation with light in a subsequent conversion step. The eluting agent may be an aqueous solution of a lower alcohol such as methanol, ethanol or isopropanol, or a mixture thereof, having a concentration of at least 25%. Preferably, the eluting agent is an aqueous solution of methanol having a concentration of 25 to 90%, most preferably 50%. The elution can be carried out at room temperature although an elevated or lowered temperature may be used if desired. For example, an elution temperature is between about 20° C. and 60° C.

Since the eluate thus obtained contains Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 in a substantially purified form, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 can be converted to hydroxocobalamin by irradiation of light. The light for irradiation is ultraviolet or visible light, for example, having a wave length of 300 to 800 nm. As a source of the light having such a wave length, a high pressure mercury arc lamp, a fluorescent lamp or the like can be used. The irradiation is continued until the disappearance of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is confirmed by spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography or the like. For example, the irradiation is carried out with a 400 W high pressure mercury arc lamp for 20 to 40 minutes. Other conditions for the irradiation, such as the concentration of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 in a reaction medium, the kind of medium, temperature, etc. are not critical. The concentration of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 in a medium to be irradiated is preferably up to 50 mM, more preferably 0.1 to 10 mM. The kind of medium is conveniently the same as that used in the preceding step. The temperature is preferably 5° C. to 30° C.

Since hydroxocobalamin in a solution thus obtained is highly reactive and unstable, it cannot be subjected to a lot of purification steps. Therefore, according to the present invention, immediately after the irradiation, the irradiated hydroxocobalamin solution is put into contact with an inorganic adsorbent to remove impurities such as those present prior to the irradiation and those generated by the irradiation such as adenosine-5'-aldehyde.

As the inorganic adsorbent, silica gel, alumina or the like may be used, with alumina being preferable. The adsorption is preferably carried out by passing an irradiated solution through a column filled with the inorganic adsorbent and recovering a flow-through fraction. Alternatively, in a batch process, an irradiated solution may be added to the inorganic adsorbent, and after mixing the mixture the adsorbent is removed by a conventional procedure such as filtration, centrifugation or the like so as to recover a purified hydroxocobalamin solution.

The treated solution is concentrated for hydroxocobalamin according to a conventional procedure such as evaporation under reduced pressure, membrane separation or the like, and hydroxocobalamin crystallized so as to recover hydroxocobalamin. For example, the concentrated solution of hydroxocobalamin is adjusted to a pH value of about 4.0, and acetone is added to the pH adjusted solution so as to crystallize hydroxocobalamin, which is then recovered at a purity of at least 95%.

EXAMPLES

 

Next, the present invention is further explained by Example, but is not limited to the said Example.

480 liters of a culture broth containing 25 mg/l of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12, obtained by fermentation using a Co-enzyme type vitamin B12producing microorganism, Propionibacteriom Shermanii IF012391, was centrifuged to recover the cells. The cells were thoroughly washed with purified water and extracted with 400 liters of water at 80° C. to obtain 400 liters of an extract containing crude Co-enzyme type vitamin B12. The extract was passed through a column filled with 6 liters of a divinylbenzene/styrene type copolymer resin, AMBERLITE XAD2000®, so that Co-enzymetype vitamin B12 is adsorbed on the resin. 250 liters of water purified by ion exchanger were continuously passed through the column at a temperature of 60° C. so as to wash out the impurities. Next, Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 was eluted with 28 liters of a 50% aqueous methanol.

The eluate was irradiated with a 400 W high pressure mercury arc lamp for 20 minutes to convert Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin. The irradiated eluate was passed through a column filled with 750 ml of alumina, to recover a flow-through fraction, which was then concentrated to 750 ml under reduced pressure.

The concentrate was adjusted to a pH value of 4.0 with acetic acid, and 3.9 liters of acetone were added to the pH-adjusted concentrate, which was then allowed to stand at 5° C. for 24 hours so as to crystallize the hydroxocobalamin. 3.7 g of hydroxocobalamin were obtained at a purity of at least 95%.

According to the present invention, high purity hydroxocobalamin can be obtained by a small number of steps from a culture broth containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 without going through cyanocobalamin as an intermediate.


Tetsuo Toraya, "Vitamin B12 and Related Compounds",

Vitamin Science II:493-494, 1980 (partial translation enclosed).
Primary Examiner: Brown, Johnnie R.
Assistant Examiner: Kunz, Gary L.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Seed, And Berry
Claims: We claim:

1. A process for the production of hydroxocobalamin comprising:
(1) contacting a solution containing coenzyme-type vitamin B12 with a divinylbenzene/styrene copolymer resin so that the coenzyme-type vitamin B is absorbed onto the resin;

(2) washing the resin with purified water or aqueous washing solution at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C. so as to remove the impurities;

(3) eluting the coenzyme-type vitamin B12 absorbed on the resin with an aqueous solution containing at least 25% by volume of a lower alcohol;

(4) irradiating the eluate with light so as to convert coenzyme-type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin;

(5) contacting the hydroxocobalamin-containing solution from step (4) with silica or alumina; and

(6) recovering the unbound, purified hydroxocobalamin.


 

 http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5338418.html


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GENETICALLY MODIFIED GMO B12

Manufacture: the chemical synthesis of vitamin B12 is extremely difficult and labour-intensive. For this reason, bio-technical processes are largely dominant in its production. It may be assumed in the meanwhile that vitamin B12 is manufactured as a rule with the aid of genetically modified microorganisms.

 

Approval: ingredients or additives that are produced with the aid of GM microorganisms are assumed not to be addressed by the EU decree 1829/2003 (GM food and feed). Hence, special approval does not exist for vitamin B12 that is produced in this manner.

 

Labelling: additives produced in closed systems with the aid of GM micro-organisms are not subject to a labelling requirement, provided that the additive in question has been purified and does not contain microorganisms.

The additive in question remains exempt from labelling even in the case that the microorganisms used in its production have obtained nutrients derived from GM plants.

 

http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/database/ingredients/200.docu.html
http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/53/6/1991/suppl/DC1

 

Vitamin B12 was discovered from its relationship to the disease pernicious anemia, which is an autoimmune disease in which parietal cells of the stomach responsible for secreting intrinsic factor are destroyed. Intrinsic factor is crucial for the normal absorption of B12, so a lack of intrinsic factor, causes a vitamin B12 deficiency.

 

The term B12 may be properly used to refer to cyanocobalamin, the principal B12 form used for foods and in nutritional supplements. This ordinarily creates no problem, except perhaps in rare cases of eye nerve damage.

 

 

BIG PHARMA

 

 

 

 

also to add - BOTTLE VITAMINS

vitamin C made from GM corn

vitamin E made from GM soy

vitamins A, B2, B6, and B12 derived from GMOs as well.

Vitamin D and K have carriers derived from GM corn sources.

 

Gene technology

There are various methods for production of vitamins: chemical synthesis, biotechnological methods with the help of microorganisms, extraction from plants or herbal material.

  • For some vitamins production methods have now been developed that use genetically modified microorganism
    vitamin B12vitamin B2vitamin Cbeta-carotene as vitamin A precursor, biotin.
    These methods are used commercially to produce vitamins C, B2, B12 and biotin.
  • Vitamin E can be produced both biotechnically or from soya beans. For extractions from soya beans, it is probable that a certain percentage derives from genetically modified plants.
  • Many vitamins, especially the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K, are attached to carrier molecules for better handling. Gene technological methods can be utilised for producing some of these carriers, e.g. starchglucosemaltodextrin.
    Carriers are not legally considered to be foodstuffs and do not therefore have to be declared.


Labelling: Additives that are produced in a closed system with the help of genetically modified microorganisms do not have to be declared, providing that the specific additive has been purified and contains no microorganisms.

Vitamins, such as vitamin E, that are prepared directly from GM-plants have to be labelled as such. Whether this is still required when the product has been subjected to several processing steps has not been definitely clarified.

 http://www.gmo-compass.org/eng/database/ingredients/204.vitamins.html 


Genetically Modified foods (GMO) were first releasted to the market in 1996 - are we that confident they are harmless ?


 ---------------------------------------------------------

SYNTHETIC B12 CYANCOBALAMIN

 made in china $2800 USD per Kg


check out this page - a wholesale list of synthetic b12 for you to choose from .

http://www.alibaba.com/countrysearch/CN/a-synthetic-%2528man--made%...


FEEDSTOCK GRADE CYANCOBALAMIN 


why does meat have B12 these days because the livestock gets injected with synthetic feedstock grade cyancobalamin prior to slaughter.

therefore everyone consuming those animals are consuming synthetic B12

http://www.alibaba.com/product-gs/225737657/Methylcobalamin_mecobal... 



 

 

 

 

 

 

A BIG THANK YOU to member John Jasper for finding this information for us on the patent and manufacturing process of b12.

 

if your going to put b12 shots into your body then you should know how its manufactured under licencing to the Nippon Oil Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, JP).

 

CYANCOBALAMIN / METHYLCOBALAMIN / HYDROXOCOBALAMIN

 

you cannot patent (copyright) a substance unless its synthetic (man made) and hydroxocobalamin is indeed patented by a Japanese oil company - see below for the process.

 
 
Process for production of hydroxocobalamin 
 
United States Patent 5338418
 
Abstract:
A process for the production of hydroxocobalamin that eliminates cyanocobalamin as an intermediate.
 
Co-enzyme-type vitamin B12 is first absorbed to a divinylbenzene/styrene resin which is washed with warm water and then eluted with a solution containing at least 25% of a lower alcohol.
 
The eluate is then irradiated with a light that causes the conversion of coenzyme-type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin.
 
Finally, the solution of hydroxocobalamin is treated with alumina or silica which binds the impurities leaving behind the highly purified hydroxocobalamin in the flow-through.
Inventors: Hirayama, Takayuki (Yokohama, JP) Kiyota, Takashi (Yokohama, JP)
 
Application Number: 07/944463
 
Publication Date: 08/16/1994
 
Filing Date: 09/14/1992
 
Assignee: Nippon Oil Co., Ltd. (Tokyo, JP)
 
Primary Class:204/158.21
 
Other Classes: 204/157.64, 204/157.67, 536/26.41, 536/26.42, 536/26.43
 
International Classes:C07H23/00C12P19/42C12R1/01; (IPC1-7): C07H23/00; C07D403/14
 
Field of Search: 536/26.43, 536/26.42, 536/26.41, 204/158.21

View Patent Images: Download PDF 5338418        PDF help 
US Patent References:
4383110 Process for purifying and separating vitamin B.sub.12 May, 1983 Kinos***a et al. 536/26.43
3448099 PROCESS FOR THE INDUSTRIAL MANUFACTURE OF HYDROXOCOBALAMIN June, 1969 Boige 260/211.7
2830009 Chromatographic recovery of vitamin b12 April, 1958 Ziegler 536/26.43
2695862 Process for obtaining vitamin b12 November, 1954 Rickes et al. 536/26.43
2694679 Preparing vitamin b12 analogs November, 1954 Holland et al. 536/26.43
2668137 Vitamin b12 elution from charcoal February, 1954 Briggs et al. 536/26.43
2626888 Vitamin b12-active substance elution from monmorillonite absorbents January, 1953 Kutosh et al. 536/26.43
Foreign References:
CA0689028 June, 1964
EP0109859 May, 1984 Process for purifying and separating vatimin B12.
DE1670193 July, 1970
FR1325304 March, 1963
FR1330307 May, 1963
FR2309564 November, 1976
GB1012360 December, 1965
GB2088383 June, 1982
Other References: Tetsuo Toraya, "Vitamin B12 and Related Compounds", Vitamin Science II:493-494, 1980 (partial translation enclosed).
 
Primary Examiner: Brown, Johnnie R.
Assistant Examiner: Kunz, Gary L.
Attorney, Agent or Firm: Seed, And Berry
 
Claims: We claim:

1. A process for the production of hydroxocobalamin comprising:
 

(1) contacting a solution containing coenzyme-type vitamin B12 with a divinylbenzene/styrene copolymer resin so that the coenzyme-type vitamin B is absorbed onto the resin;

 

(2) washing the resin with purified water or aqueous washing solution at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C. so as to remove the impurities;

 

(3) eluting the coenzyme-type vitamin B12 absorbed on the resin with an aqueous solution containing at least 25% by volume of a lower alcohol; 

 

(4) irradiating the eluate with light so as to convert coenzyme-type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin;

 

(5) contacting the hydroxocobalamin-containing solution from step (4) with silica or alumina; and

 

(6) recovering the unbound, purified hydroxocobalamin.

Description: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to a novel process for production of hydroxocobalamin.

 

2. Related Art

Various cobalamin--series compounds including hydroxocobalamin are mainly derived from Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 produced by fermentation.  

 

It is known in the art that the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is optically converted to hydroxocobalamin (see, vitamin Science (II) Water Soluble Vitamin, P 493, Tokyo Kagaku Dojin).

 

It has been believed, however, that direct isolation and purification of hydroxocobalamin from Co-enzyme type vitamin B12, which is present in a very low concentration among various impurities is very difficult, because hydroxocobalamin is highly reactive and unstable.

 

For example, Japanese Examined Patent Publication (Kokoku) No. 39-18148 (GB 1012360) describes "the case wherein hydroxocobalamin is directly produced from a fermentation broth is very difficult because hydroxocobalamin is highly reactive and hydroxocobalamin easily binds to other ions present in a solution . . . ", and this is generally recognized in the art.


Therefore, hydroxocobalamin is obtained from Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 produced by fermentation by a process comprising the steps of conversion of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 to stable cyanocobalamin, purification of the cyanocobalamin, and conversion of the purified cyanocobalamin to hydroxocobalamin (see, Japanese Examined Patent Publication No. 39-18148, and Japanese Examined Patent Publication No. 46-14664 (U.S. Pat. No. 3448099)).

 

However, the process wherein hydroxocobalamin is obtained from coenzyme-type vitamin B12 going through cyanocobalamin as an intermediate is not advantageous with respect to yield, production costs, and the like. Such a process requires numerous, complex steps.

In particular, coenzyme-type vitamin B12 is first converted to cyanocobalamin; the cyanocobalamin is isolated and purified in a sub-process requiring several steps; the purified cyanocobalamin is converted to hydroxocobalamin; and, finally, the hydroxocobalamin is isolated and purified.

 

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention provides a very simple process comprising a small number of steps for isolating and purifying hydroxocobalamin from coenzyme-type vitamin B12 produced by fermentation.

The inventive process comprises a particular combination of a few steps, including an optical conversion step of coenzyme-type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin. Such a process has been believed to be impossible in the art.

 

Thus, the present invention relates to a process for the production of hydroxocobalamin comprising the steps of:

 

(1) putting a solution containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 into contact with a divinylbenzene/styrene copolymer resin so that the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is adsorbed in the resin;

 

(2) washing the resin with purified water or aqueous washing solution at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C. so as to remove impurities;

 

(3) extracting the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 adsorbed on the resin with an aqueous solution containing at least 25% by of a lower alcohol, to obtain an eluate containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 ;

 

(4) irradiating the eluate with light to convert Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin; and

 

(5) treating the hydroxocobalamin-containing solution from step (4) with an inorganic adsorbent and recovering hydroxocobalamin.

 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION:

A solution containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 used as a starting material of the present process is obtained by fermentation using a vitamin B12-producing microorganism. The vitamin B12 -producing microorganisms include, but are not limited to, those belonging to the genus Propionibacterium, Streptomyces, Arthrobecter, Corinebacterium, Rhodopseudomonas, Mycobacterium, Pseudomonas, or the like.

 

A solution containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is, for example, a culture supernatant or filtrate obtained by eliminating microbial cells from a fermentation broth obtained by aerobically or unaerobically culturing said producer microorganism; an extract obtained by extracting microbial cells of the producer microorganism with an extracting agent such as water or an aqueous extracting agent; a solution obtained by disrupting microbial cells of the producer microorganism with a conventional means such as a mechanical means or ultrasonication, or the like.

 

According to the present invention, it is preferable that an extract be obtained by culturing a vitamin B12 -producing microorganism, separating the cultured cells in a conventional means, and optionally washing the cells with purified water such as water purified with an ion exchanger, and extracting the cells with purified water such as water purified with an ion exchanger at an elevated temperature, preferably at 60° C. to 95° C. for example, 80° C.

 

Next, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution thus obtained is contacted with a divinylbenzene/styrene type copolymer resin so that the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is adsorbed on the resin.

 

The divinylbenzene/styrene type copolymer resin is a copolymer resin obtained from divinylbenzene, styrene or functional derivative thereof as main monomer components, or a copolymer resin derived from divinylbenzene, styrene or functional derivative thereof as main components, and incorporating an aromatic polycarboxylate unsaturated alkyl ester represented by the formula: ##STR1## wherein R is an unsaturated C8 -C10 alkyl having a carbon-carbon double band, and n being 2 or 3.

 

This resin is sometimes abbreviated as a DST resin.

 

These resins are generally obtained by copolymerizing the above-mentioned monomers with a known radical initiator.

Preferably, styrene or a functional derivative thereof comprises 30 to 80%, preferably 45 to 70% by weight of the resin and the aromatic polycarboxylate/unsaturated alkyl ester comprises, if any, 0.1 to 30% by weight preferably 1 to 10% by weight of the resin.

Particular DST resins include, for example, AMBERLITE XAD-2®, XAD-4® and 2000®, DIAION HP20®, SEPABEADS SP207® and SP825®.

According to the present process, contacting the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 with the resin adsorbent can be carried out using any means that ensures sufficient contact thereof.

For example, a batch system wherein the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution is mixed with the resin adsorbent and optionally the mixture is agitated to ensure sufficient contact, or a column chromatography system wherein an appropriate column is filled with the resin adsorbent and the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution is passed through the column.

 

In the case of the batch system, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution is adjusted to a suitable pH value, for example a pH value of about 5 to 8, preferably a pH value of about 7, and to the solution is added a suitable amount of the resin adsorbent, for example about 1 to 50% by volume of the resin adsorbent, and the mixture is gently agitated for about 10 minutes to 2 hours, usually about 20 minutes to an hour.

 

The temperature during the adsorption is preferably lower than room temperature although room temperature may be used. For example, the temperature during adsorption may be between about 10° C. and 30° C.

The column chromatography system for the adsorption can be carried out by passing the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 -containing solution through a column filled with a resin adsorbent under the same pH and temperature conditions as for the batch system described above.

 

According to the present invention, the resin on which Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 has been adsorbed is washed with a washing agent to remove impurities and maintain the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 adsorbed on the resin.

 

The impurities to be removed include those derived from the culture broth, for example, salts of aliphatic carboxylic acids such as sodium propionate, sodium burylate and sodium pentanoate, amino acids such as glutamic acid, aspartic acids, proline, leucine, alanine, sugars such as glucose, fructose, ribose and galactose, as well as bases comprising nucleic acids, such as adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymidine and uracil, and the like.

 

The washing increases the purity of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12eluted from the resin adsorbent in a subsequent elution step.

 

The washing agent is preferably purified water. The purified water is, for example, water purified by an ion exchanger and having a specific resistance of 100×104 ohm.cm, prepared by passing water through a column filled with an ion exchange resin, such as Amberlite IR-120B and Amberlite IRA-410.

 

The purified water is used to wash the resin absorbent at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C., preferably between about 45° C. and 55° C. Alternatively, the washing agent may be an aqueous solution of an acid such as acetic acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid, boric acid, hydrochloric acid or the like, having a concentration of 0.1 to 1.0% by weight, at a temperature between 30° C. and 70° C., preferably between about 45° C. and 55° C. Moreover, an aqueous solution of a lower alcohol having a low concentration, for example a methanol, ethanol or isopropanol aqueous solution having a concentration of 5 to 20%, such an 20% aqueous methanol, 10% aqueous ethanol, 5% aqueous isopropanol or the like, may be used for the washing.

 

The washing agent may be selected depending on the nature and amount of the impurities, the kind of the resin adsorbent, and the like.

 

 

elution is extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent.


According to the present invention, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 adsorbed on the washed resin was eluted with an eluting agent so as to obtain an active fraction containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 but not containing impurities.

 

As the eluting agent, any agent that desorbs and elutes the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 from the resin adsorbent, and does not interfere with irradiation with light in a subsequent conversion step.

 

The eluting agent may be an aqueous solution of a lower alcohol such as methanol, ethanol or isopropanol, or a mixture thereof, having a concentration of at least 25%.

Preferably, the eluting agent is an aqueous solution of methanol having a concentration of 25 to 90%, most preferably 50%.

The elution can be carried out at room temperature although an elevated or lowered temperature may be used if desired. For example, an elution temperature is between about 20° C. and 60° C.

 

Since the eluate thus obtained contains Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 in a substantially purified form, the Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 can be converted to hydroxocobalamin by irradiation of light.

 

The light for irradiation is ultraviolet or visible light, for example, having a wave length of 300 to 800 nm. As a source of the light having such a wave length, a high pressure mercury arc lamp, a fluorescent lamp or the like can be used.

 

The irradiation is continued until the disappearance of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 is confirmed by spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography or the like.

For example, the irradiation is carried out with a 400 W high pressure mercury arc lamp for 20 to 40 minutes. Other conditions for the irradiation, such as the concentration of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 in a reaction medium, the kind of medium, temperature, etc. are not critical. The concentration of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 in a medium to be irradiated is preferably up to 50 mM, more preferably 0.1 to 10 mM.

 

The kind of medium is conveniently the same as that used in the preceding step. The temperature is preferably 5° C. to 30° C.

 

Since hydroxocobalamin in a solution thus obtained is highly reactive and unstable, it cannot be subjected to a lot of purification steps.

Therefore, according to the present invention, immediately after the irradiation, the irradiated hydroxocobalamin solution is put into contact with an inorganic adsorbent to remove impurities such as those present prior to the irradiation and those generated by the irradiation such as adenosine-5'-aldehyde.

 

As the inorganic adsorbent, silica gel, alumina or the like may be used, with alumina being preferable.

The adsorption is preferably carried out by passing an irradiated solution through a column filled with the inorganic adsorbent and recovering a flow-through fraction.

Alternatively, in a batch process, an irradiated solution may be added to the inorganic adsorbent, and after mixing the mixture the adsorbent is removed by a conventional procedure such as filtration, centrifugation or the like so as to recover a purified hydroxocobalamin solution.

 

The treated solution is concentrated for hydroxocobalamin according to a conventional procedure such as evaporation under reduced pressure, membrane separation or the like, and hydroxocobalamin crystallized so as to recover hydroxocobalamin.

For example, the concentrated solution of hydroxocobalamin is adjusted to a pH value of about 4.0, and acetone is added to the pH adjusted solution so as to crystallize hydroxocobalamin, which is then recovered at a purity of at least 95%.

 

EXAMPLES

Next, the present invention is further explained by Example, but is not limited to the said Example.

 

480 liters of a culture broth containing 25 mg/l of Co-enzyme type vitamin B12, obtained by fermentation using a Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 producing microorganism, Propionibacteriom Shermanii IF012391, was centrifuged to recover the cells.

 

The cells were thoroughly washed with purified water and extracted with 400 liters of water at 80° C. to obtain 400 liters of an extract containing crude Co-enzyme type vitamin B12.

 

The extract was passed through a column filled with 6 liters of a divinylbenzene/styrene type copolymer resin, AMBERLITE XAD2000®, so that Co-enzymetype vitamin B12 is adsorbed on the resin.

 

250 liters of water purified by ion exchanger were continuously passed through the column at a temperature of 60° C. so as to wash out the impurities. Next, Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 was eluted with 28 liters of a 50% aqueous methanol.

 

The eluate was irradiated with a 400 W high pressure mercury arc lamp for 20 minutes to convert Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 to hydroxocobalamin. The irradiated eluate was passed through a column filled with 750 ml of alumina, to recover a flow-through fraction, which was then concentrated to 750 ml under reduced pressure.

 

The concentrate was adjusted to a pH value of 4.0 with acetic acid, and 3.9 liters of acetone were added to the pH-adjusted concentrate, which was then allowed to stand at 5° C. for 24 hours so as to crystallize the hydroxocobalamin. 3.7 g of hydroxocobalamin were obtained at a purity of at least 95%.

  

According to the present invention, high purity hydroxocobalamin can be obtained by a small number of steps from a culture broth containing Co-enzyme type vitamin B12 without going through cyanocobalamin as an intermediate.

 

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5338418.html

 

  

 

Side effects of HYDROXOCOBALAMIN B12

The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with this medicine. 

  • Nausea.
  • Headache.
  • Itching.
  • Fever.
  • Chills.
  • Dizziness.
  • Hot flushes.
  • Reaction at site of injection.
  • Low blood potassium level (hypokalaemia) during initial treatment.
  • High platelet count (thrombocytosis) during initial treatment.
  • Skin rashes.

 

The side effects listed above may not include all of the side effects reported by the medicine's manufacturer.

 http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diet-and-nutrition/medicines/hydroxocoba...

 

 

Some medicines and hydroxocobalamin may interfere with each other.

These include: 

- chloramphenicol, a medicine used to treat infections

- the contraceptive pill (birth control pill)

- folic acid.

http://hospira.com.au/english/_docs/DBL/Hydroxocobalamin_Neo-B12_cm...

 

 ------------------------------------------------------------

 

The B12 manufacturing process includes mixing with synthetic DST resins (petrochemical) which are all ® registered trademarks - these inlude:

 

AM-BERLITE XAD-2® 

XAD-4® 

2000 ® 

DI-AION HP20® 

SEPABEADS SP207 ® 

SP825 ® 

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/5338418.pdf

    

photo taken from enviromental engineering - development of fluidized bed system for absorption of phenol from aqueous solutions with commerical macroporous resins.

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0104-66322007000100002&scr...

 these are all industrial grade polymeric absorbents (petrochemical).

http://www.dow.com/assets/attachments/business/process_chemicals/am...

 

this is why i think the japanese petrochemical (the Arab emerates biggest petrolroleum customer are the japanese) owns the patent to hydroxocabalmin b12.

 

-------------------------------------------------------------

ABOUT CYANOCOBALAMIN 

 

when its being transported it carries a safety cauction of S24/25 which means avoid contact with skin and eyes.

cyanocobalamin its badly absorbed by the body - the amount that is, coverts to CYANIDE poision.


below is the manufacturers website for B12 - they are all industrial chemical plants in japan. 

http://www.chemnet.com/Japan/Products/VitaminB12/Suppliers-0-0.html


------------------------------------------------------------



 END NOTE: if ive made any mistakes with the discussion please let me know.

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Replies to This Discussion

If you're worried about the synthetic stuff, get some fresh methyl poop from a local compounding pharmacy.

I get mine from Trim Nutrition:

http://www.trimnutrition.com/Trim-Methylcobalamin-Max-%28B12%29-10-...

Fresh, local, organic, veganic, green, sustainable, grown on corn, shipped overnight on ice, keep it in the fridge, EASY!:)

hey rawbert - interesting  but have a look at this patent on methylcobalamin 

http://www.freepatentsonline.com/7220855.html

all saleable forms of of b12 seem to have a pentent on them which means they are all sythetic including yours but please tell me what you think.

Hey VW, 

the B12 itself is not synthetic - it is produced by naturally available bacteria and then purified. It's the purification process which is artificial. The final product may have synthetic impurities as a result of that process, but most impurities are likely to be other bacterial waste products that haven't been separated properly from the B12.

-

I can't see where sodium chloride or acetic acid comes into the above process so perhaps the actual process being used to make neo-B12 is slightly different. If someone is strict 811 then not wanting to inject a solution containing salt and vinegar is understandable, but both are minimally toxic so it might be an acceptable compromise for someone with B12 deficiency.

-

The way I see it is that if you have low B12 then you have 3 options. Sublinguals, which you have to take daily and have low efficiency for many people. Injections, which like sublinguals will contain some impurities. Or you can try and eat more unwashed/unpeeled fruit and veg.

Personally I would only be happy eating unwashed veg if I have grown it myself. Commercial farming operations often result in contamination, whether it's from spreading improperly decomposed manure or sewage on fields, or pesticides, or fecal contamination during packing etc. 

hey vw,

I don't think this concerns the fresh methyl poop, but I'll have to check with Trim.

Hi Rawbert ;)

Thank you very much for the link!! It sounds brilliant... I've tried now several times to order it (I'm in Austria), but it doesn't work.

                     Do you know what I have done wrong or do you think they don't send it to Europe? They always write this:


Please choose from your address book where you would like the items to be delivered. Note: we do not currently ship to PO Boxes.
Change Address
Shipping Address: Please No PO Box Olaf Bernhard Waschpoint16 4070 Eferding Austria 004372726190
This is currently the only shipping method available to use on this order.

United Parcel Service (1 x 2.4lbs) United Parcel Service

 

 

Being from europe, you should be able to find neo-b12 quite easily.  No need to buy an expensive, low shelf life product from america.   The trim nutrition products are expensive and/or require massive amount of injections to use the product in 3 months.  Methylcobalamin can precipitate the formation of methylmercury in the body.  It seems insane to take it at these levels. (about 8x the normal mcg rate for the 2000mcg version).  The 1000mcg version comes near $20 a shot.   You should be able to find neo-b12 for about $6 a shot.

Hi Chickster! :) Thank you very much for your reply!! I'm very thankful! Now I know that I can't order the stuff from trim nutrition because they do not ship to europe ...

I sounds great that I need less injection with the neo-b12.. less injections = less pain ;D ;D

.. and they are really cheap! :) thank you very much for your support!!

peace, Desi

Hey Desi,

The fresh poop has to be shipped on ice, overnight so they only ship it to the US.. sorry :(

Try to find a local compounding pharmacy that grows fresh methyl B12 on corn so there's no preservatives and other stuff added.

Hi Rawbert :D

Thank you so much for your reply!! Ohhh, now everything make sense why it was not possible to order it.. that's a pity :( But now I know why it wasn't working! Thank's a lot for your advice!

Vitamin B12 was first isolated in 1948 in a crystalline form.

 

This triggered an intense investigation of its structure by X-ray crystallographers, including Dorothy Hodgkin, a British scientist who finally elucidated the complete structure of this red, cobalt-containing substance in 1955.

 

As well as this structural study, there was also an increasing effort to obtain a large amount of vitamin B12 from natural sources for therapeutic and experimental uses.

 

In the early 1950s, it was found that the sludge remaining in the fermentation tanks of sewage disposal plants had unusually high amounts of vitamin B12 compounds, and that the final fermentation process was carried out almost exclusively by methane-producing, anaerobic bacteria.

 

In the late 1950s, by studying the formation of methane by Methanosarcina barkeri and other anaerobic bacteria, Thressa demonstrated that vitamin B12 is involved in the methane-producing process.

 

Furthermore, she explained that the free form of vitamin B12can function as a methyl group carrier, and that its coenzyme forms serve as hydrogen carriers.

 

This knowledge provided the basis for much of the current understanding of methane biosynthesis.

 

In 1958, another breakthrough in the study of vitamin B12 was made by Horace A. Barker, Thressa's mentor, who discovered the biologically active forms (coenzyme forms) of B12 vitamins while working on the anaerobic metabolism of glutamate. 

  

Coenzymes are non-protein molecules that help the catalytic function of enzymes.

 

In the end, Thressa and her co-workers discovered 5 of the 12 known vitamin B12 -dependent enzymes, some of which, as coenzyme forms, function in lysine  fermentation.

 

http://history.nih.gov/exhibits/stadtman/nose_VB12.htm

It makes me very happy when people are learning more about B12. 

So the issue here seems to be "If it's synthetic or comes from a synthetic process and if there's BPA in the syringe, why the hell am I injecting it, why shouldn't I just get it from produce?" 

Suchhh a complicated question! 

Most soil is cobalt deficient, even soil on organic farms. There are many reasons for this. 

Also, many other things affect B12 absorption. Some people still eat algae and things like this - which contains a B12 ANALOGUE which INHIBITS absorption of B12. Some people find that cutting out overts or limiting overts raises B12 levels. Some people still have impaired absorption or synthesis due to leftover health problems from their SAD years. (Note - not just synthesized in the ileum - also in the throat and one other place that I forget.) 

Eating dirty produce is great but will only get you B12 if it was grown in good soil. 

I reject the idea expressed previously that when we stopped sleeping with the animals we started living longer. A healthy immune system should be able to resist most puny bacteria, HOWEVER, much produce is not contaminated from "dirt" it is contaminated from carnivorous animal feces or feces from cows fed other cows or dead chickens or corn and soybeans. This feces contains pathogens which are bad for any human no matter how strong the immune system. SO the problem is not that we refuse to leave our dirty roots and stop sleeping with the goats, the problem is that we are feeding the goats things that makes their feces pathogenic and then rolling our food in the pathogenic feces and then eating the food and getting sick. See? We don't need our "clean modern food system" to live longer, we just need it to actually BE a clean modern food system. 

So eat dirty produce, only if you really know where it came from. And if you really know that that soil is healthy and contains cobalt. 

Some people simply cannot meet their B12 needs due to their chlorella habit or the industrial food system that they must get their fruit from or other reasons. So for these people, it seems the only option is to go "synthetic." Sucks, doesn't it? It's the world we live in. Of course there are ways to get around it, so start trying and maybe someday you won't need the NEO-B12. 

hydroxocobalamin were obtained at a purity of at least 95%

And what about those 5% left? What are they? Safe or not? Constant or not?

First, I would never inject myself anything with a syringe, because they can put whatever they want on the label, chemistry is never 100% pure, and you still have residues. Like the story of a residual wrong conformation for a medicine taken by pregnant women who gave many birth defects, just because both compounds produced had the exact same chemistry except for a symmetry, and one was toxic, highly, and just a residual of the process, too much of it afterall.

And what about the preservatives if any, and diluant? And their purity as well?

Also, I don't want to inject myself with anything, because as much as there is no animal cooking its food, there is no animal taking a syringe and injecting himself, the only ones who get some are in zoos and feeding slots! Choose your board ;-)

And I've been vegan for close to 10 years, eating 100% raw for 7 years, and never took any B12, never got any testing because I don't need any! And if you think I'm wrong, well come to my place and see what you can do in a few years when low on B12...

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